هل وصلنا إلى القاع؟ التضحية بالسوريين في لبنان

From Flicker CC by Caelie_Frampton

 

في بداية العام الجديد، طالعتنا السلطات اللبنانية[1] بقرار اعتماد إجراءات جديدة من شأنها تنظيم دخول السوريين إلى لبنان بهدف تحديد من يمكنه الدخول، وذلك وفقاً لمعايير [2] تم الإعلان عنها على موقع الأمن العام اللبناني. تسمح هذه المعايير لجميع المالكين أو أصحاب العمل أو الراغبين في التسوّق بالدخول إلى لبنان وفقاً لشروط محددة وعدد من الأوراق المطلوبة. أمّا الغموض، فيلفّ فئتين: فئة الذين يلزمهم كفيل لبناني يتحمّل مسؤوليتهم من خلال تعهّد موقّع عند الكاتب العدل، وفئة النازح أو النازحة التي لم تُعلن حتى الساعة معايير دخولها، وذلك بحسب ما جاء في المؤتمر الصحافي الذي عقدته ممثلة مفوضية الأمم المتحدة نينت كيلي التي قالت إنها ما زالت في انتظار صدور معايير الدخول[3]  بصفة "نازح" من وزارة الشؤون الاجتماعية. وقد ترافق مع الإجراء الجديد المتعلّق بتنظيم دخول السوريين والسوريات إلى لبنان، قرار رقم179\1 الصادر عن وزير العمل سجعان قزي، والمتعلّق بالمهن الواجب حصرها باللبنانيين فقط [4]، بالإضافة إلى قرار وزير التربية بفتح 128 مدرسة[5] فقط، تعمل بدوام ثانٍ مخصّص للطلاب السوريين، بناء على قرار 1104/م/2014[6]الذي صدر سابقاً.  ويُضاف إلى هذه القرارات وجود قوانين عرفية صدرت عن عدد من البلديات تجبر السوريين والسوريات على الالتزام بحظر تجوّل مفروض عليهم/نّ تختلف مواعيده بين بلدية وأخرى.

على صعيد آخر، خصّص طوني خليفة حلقة بعنوان "هيدا قرار[7]"، حيث ربط مشكلة البطالة اللبنانية بوجود يد عاملة سورية تنافس العمّال اللبنانيين. وكانت إيفا أبي حيدر كتبت مقالاً في جريدة الجمهورية بعنوان "السوريون يقتنصون فرص العمل[8]" استندت فيه إلى إحصائيات من قبل مؤسّسة لابورا تتعلّق بارتفاع نسب البطالة عند اللبنانيين.  أمّا بالنسبة إلى اللاجئين المسجّلين مع المفوضية العليا لشؤون اللاجئين، فيبقى عليهم التوجّه إلى مراكز الأمن العام مع نسخة من عقد الإيجار وتعهّد بعدم العمل موقّع لدى الكاتب العدل، بالإضافة إلى مبلغ 300 ألف ل.ل عن رسوم الإقامة لمدة ستة أشهر.[9]

ها هي جميع الأبواب تُقفل أمام السوريين في لبنان. فدخولهم أصبح معقداً ومشروطاً بمعايير محدّدة، أهمّها أنهم أفراد يمكنهم العيش في سوريا ويستطيعون تحمّل كلفة ذلك. أما بالنسبة  إلى اللاجئين المسجّلين هنا، فلا يمكنهم المغادرة لأنهم أولاً، سيفقدون صفة "لاجئ"، ثانياً، لا يمكنهم العمل بسبب قرار وزير العمل الأخير، ثالثاً، هم  بحاجة لتأمين مبلغ  300 ألف ليرة للإقامة ستة أشهر (مع أنهم لا يستطيعون العمل). وبهذا، يصبح السوريون اللاجئون في لبنان سجناء أو مشاريع  عائدين إلى سوريا، رغم كل الخطر. 

فكيف سيعيش السوريون في لبنان، وتحديداً أولئك الذين لا يمكنهم المغادرة؟ كيف يمكن للاجئ السوري العيش دون مخالفة أي من القوانين، في وقت انخفضت فيه المساعدات الإغاثية أكثر من أي وقت مضى؟

لا شك في أن السوريين سيكونون خاضعين لأخلاقيات اللبنانيين في محيطهم، وحظّهم. فكيف يمكن للسوري الذي سيضطر أن يعمل بصورة غير شرعية لتأمين إيجار البيت أو الحصول على وجبة غذاء، أن يحمي نفسه من أي مشكلة قد تطرأ على علاقته مع ربّ العمل؟ كيف ستتمكّن السيدة التي سيطالبها صاحب البيت بالجنس مقابل الإيجار الرفض؟

 يقول وزير الشؤون الاجتماعية رشيد درباس  لصحيفة السفير "التدابير المتّخذة على الحدود لا تشمل النازحين الذين يحملون بطاقة «لاجئ» والمسجّلين على لوائح مفوضية شؤون اللاجئين، لافتاً الانتباه إلى أن هذه البطاقة تحصّن اللاجئ السوري داخل الأراضي اللبنانية[10]". ربما كان على الوزير إعادة التوضيح بأن البطاقة قد تحمي من الترحيل، لكنها لا تحمي من الاستغلال والاحتجاز والإهانات اليومية. وتعالت في هذا السياق أصوات عديدة تنذر بوجود  أدلة تؤكّد لجوء الحكومة إلى سياسات ملتوية تجبر السوريين على الرحيل من دون  أن يتم ذلك بشكل مباشر، إنما بوسائل أخرى مثل الاحتجاز التعسفي والحرمان من الحقوق المدنية[11].

 

إن التعاطي الرسمي مع قضية اللاجئين يبدو وكأنه يحاول التبرير لنفسه صلاحيات أخذ مثل القرارات التي اتُخذت. فمن الواضح أن الحكومة لا تستطيع التدخل في كل الملفات العالقة داخلياً أو خارجياً. كما أنه، ومن بعد التمديد الذاتي لأعضاء البرلمان، [12]كان لا بد من الاستعاضة عن تزفيت الطرقات وتوزيع المحسوبيات الرائجة في فترة الانتخابات، بشيء آخر يمكن أن تختبئ خلفه الحكومات المتعاقبة وملوك الطوائف لتعزو إليه سوء إداراة موارد هذا البلد ومصالحه.

كما أنّ التركيز على قضية اللاجئين السوريين يشوّش على المواطن اللبناني رؤيته، فيلقي باللوم على السوري ووجوده. ولا يملك المواطن إلا ابتلاع الخطاب هذا لعجزه عن مواجهة الحقيقة المُرّة، وهي أن الطوائف نفسها رهينة ملوك الحرب مجدداً، والمنتمون إليها أيضاً رهائن لها، حيث لا يمكن العيش في الوقت الحاضر من دون غطاء طائفي. والخطاب المحرّض ضد السوريين يقوم على ركيزة يتكرّر الاستناد إليها، هي أن السوريين يستعملون البنى التحتية للبلاد، ولا يدفعون الضرائب، ويسرقون "الوظائف". وقد وصف الخبير الاقتصادي جورج قرم [13]هذا الخطاب بأنه خطاب يرتكز على  تخوّفات سياسية أكثر منها اقتصادية، ويضيف أن العمّال السوريين  هم ركيزة الاقتصاد، وأن  ضعف الاقتصاد اللبناني هو حالة مزمنة وليست بحديثة. فلا شك في أن لبنان بحاجة إلى اليد العاملة السورية التي ارتكز عليها بشدّة في إعادة الاعمار، غير أنه لا يريد العائلات التي تأتي معها.

أمام هذا الواقع، أطرح على نفسي هذا السؤال: هل وصلنا إلى القاع؟ فكُرْهُ السوريين والسوريات يتنشر في لبنان من الجنوب إلى الشمال، وهم يُتركون، هكذا، عرضةً  لغضب ليسوا مسؤولين عنه.  مليون و200 ألف كبش فداء  استمرار  النظام الطائفي وحماية ملوكه.



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